Zika Virus was first discovered from a Rhesus Monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. More recently, there have been outbreaks in Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Americas. ZIKV has caused a global health concern since infections have been linked to cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and birth defects. There are two lineages of the virus: The African, and the Asian lineage. Phylogenetic studies indicate that the virus spreading in the Americas is most closely related to the Asian lineage. ZIKV is a member of the virus family flaviviridae and the genus flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. It is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. The virus produces 3 structural (capsid [C], premembrane [prM], envelope [E]) and 7 non-structural proteins (including NS1). Studies from other flaviviruses demonstrate an immune response primarily targets the prM, E and the secreted NS1 proteins.
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